The aging adult experiences a slower metabolism, decreased energy and decrease in bone density and musculoskeletal degeneration. Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandel (2015) note middle age adults can decrease the ris k of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and depression by simply engaging in moderate physical activity daily.
The aging of the cardiovascular system, of middle aged adults can be directly related to lifestyle habits, such as diet and exercise (Jarvis, 2011). There is a decrease in the elasticity of blood vessels, increase in left ventricular hypertrophy, and decrease cardiac output with exercise. These changes can lead to increased muscle fatigue, and shortness of breath. The Centers for Disease Control reports that heart disease is one of the leading causes of mortality among middle age adults with as many as 610,000 deaths annually. Patients should consult with their physicians prior to starting exercise regime. The nurse should assess the patient history for risk factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Education and resources can be provided to the patient about habits that be changed like smoking cessation, increased activity, and weight loss (Wei, 2015). It is recommended for middle aged adults to participate in at least 30 minutes of brisk exercise for 3-4 days weekly, it’s important to make sure the activity is something enjoyable for the individual or that can be incorporated into their leisure activities (Edelman, 2013). Nurses can encourage realistic activity increase such as taking the stairs instead of elevators.
Bone density and muscle mass decrease in the aging adult. Osteoporosis, arthritis and degenerative joint disease are disorders that are related to the loss of bone density. Regular exercise and weight decrease can help decrease the risk of early onset of osteoporosis and arthritics. According to the CDC arthritis is on e of the leading causes of chronic pan in the United states, with more than 54.4 adults being affected. The CDC recommends water exercise programs two to three times a week for an hour to reduce pain and improve function. Water aerobics is activity that does not put as much stress and strain on joints and bones.
Regular exercise and physical activity can have benefits in combating depression and other mood disorders(Edelman,2015). The CDC reports 1 in 5 Americans will experience a m mental illness annually. Regular exercise can reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression and increases endorphins allowing for increased feeling of wellbeing as noted by the CDC. Increased physical activity and exercise has many benefits including physical and mental aspects.
Domestic violence laws vary significantly from state to state. These differences in domestic violence range from the very definition of domestic abuse; whether abuse must be psychological, or whether it can be emotional, physical, and financial, to the rules under mandatory reporting laws. For instance, in some states, nurses may have to report suspected domestic abuse to the police. This is vital since many women in the United States decide not to receive medical care if they are aware their domestic abuser will get in trouble.
Due to these differences in laws, the whole process of escaping a domestic violence scenario entirely depends on the state in which hail from. For my case, I live in California and the laws here on domestic violence are different from other states. Here, psychologists and counselors are not subject to this mandatory reporting on domestic violence. It applies only to medical practitioners who offer medical services for physical conditions. This is meant to encourage victims of domestic violence to attend counseling services for their mental health, even if they may not be willing to inform police about the violence. It’s paramount that this difference is made since in California, doctors and nurses are subject to criminal punishment if they intentionally fail to report domestic abuse. This postulates that, if a victim is abused domestically and goes to the healthcare Centre to treat the injuries, the nurse must report the suspected domestic abuse.
The medical professionals are supposed to make a report if the patient suffering from any external or internal wound or other physical injury caused by his own act or caused by someone else through a firearm. The report is also made the patient is suffering from any other physical injury or wound caused upon the patient where the injury is attributed to abusive or assaultive conduct. abusive or Assaultive conduct refers to a list of twenty-four criminal offenses, among which are manslaughter, torture, abuse of spouse or cohabitant, murder, battery, assault with a deadly weapon, rape, sexual battery, incest, spousal rape, and an attempt to commit any of these crimes.