14 PEER RESPONSES DUE IN 16 HOURS – EACH SET OF 2 HAS ITS OWN INSTRUCTIONSplease label responses according to discussion titleLeading Groups, Facilitating Groups, and Reading PeopleSHEMAIAH’S POST:Nonverbal communication refers to the nonverbal processes we undergo as we relay information to others. Nonverbal communication is a very important aspect of the group setting. Nonverbal communication is uncontrolled and trumps verbal communication (Adams, K., & Galanes, G, 2017, p.71-72). In the group setting, individuals communicate even if one says nothing. Often, the nonverbal communication signals one displays are what take precedence over what is spoken aloud. For example, if someone in the group scrunches up one’s face in reaction to trying an unfamiliar dish, it will be perceived that the food is distasteful even if the individual declares it to be delicious. One way to communicate nonverbally is the usage of proxemics. Proxemics refers to the amount of space an individual keeps between themselves and others (Adams, K., & Galanes, G, 2017, p.74). I think that proximity can both help and harm relationships with others because it may be comfortable to some but can cause discomfort for others. Facial expressions are one of the most noticeable elements of nonverbal communication. I think that facial expressions can cause more harm than because, it can cause others to gain the wrong impression. In addition to this, facial expressions can send messages that can be misinterpreted. I think that eye contact is one of the most misconstrued nonverbal elements. Although eye contact is acceptable, this element can be harmful when one takes into consideration the cultures of others.While interacting within the group setting, it of the greatest significance that communication is effective. Communication can single handedly cause a group to experience success or lead to its ultimate failure. In order to facilitate a group effectively, communication must be ongoing. In addition to this, roles must be distributed to ensure that each group member is sharing the workload (Adams, K., & Galanes, G, 2017, p.96). Most importantly, in order to facilitate a group effectively, the leader should address conflict appropriately and in a timely fashion to avoid groupthink (Adams, K., & Galanes, G, 2017, p.182).The most ineffective form of leadership is a leader who leads with a laissez-faire attitude. Laissez-Faire leaders assume the role of being equal with all group members and are not typically interested in leadership responsibilities (Adams, K., & Galanes, G, 2017, p.71-72). On the other hand, the most effective form of leadership is a leader who is democratic. An example of a democratic leader is my pastor. Although my pastor must make many decisions without the input of the congregation, he often allows church members to submit their input concerning church related operations. My pastor genuinely values our input and considers what will benefit most of the church when opposing ideas are presented.Kagan is an engagement based program that has been implemented in schools worldwide. Spencer Kagan developed this program to increase student engagement and to create a world in which individuals value the input of others by sharing and gaining information from others. This program is researched based and is available for professionals worldwide. Using this program will allow individuals to access the tools needed to grow as a facilitator in both the small and large group setting.Adams, K., & Galanes, G. (2017). Communicating in groups: application and skills (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-HillTAMMY’S POST:Effective facilitation in a consumer group and any groupIn the case of consumers, it is essential to grasp and maintain attention. We may all hear, but active listening is essential. We send information but it is equally important to receive information -feedback. We may need to move about, change our tone, and even change the details of how and what we present. The key to succeeding as we do this is knowing the audience we encounter. In order to gain the attention of an audience, a facilitator must engage the emotional response. One must elicit time and space for thoughts, desires, and opinions. Although not every piece of mind will be implemented into a project, the value of being seen and heard can establish the rapport necessary to thrive. For instance, you may have heard someone say, “It is not for me, but I have heard…” or “If this was X, Y, or Z, then I may consider…” When a person or group is not heard that is when attention or care leaves with them.Nonverbal communication and body languageBody language and gestures convey what is not said and are often more seen and heard than what is not being said. Be awake and attentive. Being sluggish and slumped over sends a poor image. Be appropriately toned. Do not yell in a library, nor whisper in a stadium. Pay attention if an audience is gravitating toward you. Sometimes, the simple responses can tell us a lot. Is a person squinting? Adjust the screen projector. Are they rolling their eyes? Add some humor or questions as this engages audiences and groups. Non-verbal cues and body language are like pictures in that they are worth a million words, so the saying goes.Least and most effective leadership styles examplingTransformative leadership is ideal, in my opinion. It is selfless, and inspiration for the greater good of all, or otherwise most as ethical principles and philosophies would concur. It means to bring no harm but also go beyond the limb to help someone else grow. (Adams & Galanes, 2017, p. 258) Although I agree with the trade and exchange of transactional leadership, I think the transformative superior engages and pumps others’ enthusiasm. There is also the approach for the better good. While the best fit does not always fit a few, the principle is moral and ethical in genuinely looking for a seamless and beneficial. An example used is Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. for his charismatic leading style. King saw pain and desired to bring love. He spoke in compassion. His will was to do good and reflect on character, not color. It is a toss-up of these two leaderships because compromising and collaborating are and give and take necessary. Give and take is like send and receive.Least favorable in leading others is one that does not lead at all but rather with a distributive concept as an approach manipulates and sometimes coerces (Adams & Galanes, 2017, p. 260)  Dictating or push each other around; in such cases of power and control and a power struggle, no one wins. No person should necessarily Groupthink or be as distributed leadership indicates become a possession to another in a hierarchy. I feel there is no specific leader in this category, but instead, I see this more in communist and cult ideals. Many that come to mind are Stalin or Manson, extremists.Resources to grow as facilitators of groupsSome of the best resources to facilitate groups are growing communication and learning styles. Facilitation and cohesion in doing so can be encouraged and fostered through an assortment of courses. Interpersonal and intercultural are ideal for a foundation.Three ways of communicating nonverbally and explain how this communication is harmful or helpful in your relationship with human services consumersThis question is challenging because my position mostly interacts electronically – by Notice of Action (NOA). Our correspondence is literal legal jargon and policy implemented with statutes following this federal provision or that state exception, so it is dry. It can come across as insensitive or demanding. I personalize my notices of action with a “Congratulations on your new baby!” Being human opposed to, “Federal law prohibits and state addendums requirements…section 1.22.3456(A).”I think this personalization shows that I see the family as an asset and of value. Even a sincere and heartfelt, “This is a difficult time. We understand how tolling the pandemic has proven to be. Know, we are working to process in your favor to meet your family’s needs.” Introduction and conclusion with a salutation and well wishes can set a kind tone. Lastly, I invite the client to call with questions or concerns and leave directives in my narratives. It is a deep jolt to feel forgotten or just another case number. Specific verbiage is also reassuring, leaving a voice message apologizing and then reiterating the discussion without disclosure, which can also be done on written fomrats. It sends a loud message that I cared enough to listen.ReferencesAdams, K., & Galanes, G. (2017). Communicating in groups: Application and skills (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. eISBN-13: 9781259983283Who Are English Language Learners?Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts, and compare the information to what you wrote. Discuss what information is new and what is already known. What information surprises you? Respond to at least two of your classmates, and provide recommendations to extend their thinking. For distinguished peer responses, respond with a minimum of five sentences that add to the conversation and, refrain from evaluative posts (i.e., You did a good job.).MELISSA’S POST:Who Are English Language Learners?English language learners are students and adults who are learning how to speak English as a second language. English Language Learners mostly come from non-English speaking homes or backgrounds and may have come into the United States after they were born, however, most children in the schools in the United States have been born in this country, but still, come from non-English speaking households. These students require modified and specialized instructions in both their academics and learning the English Language.The four domains of language are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening and reading are receptive and observable, it is how we learn and process information whereas, Speaking and writing are productive and are how we express or communicate the information we have learned. To be proficient in each domain I have broken down the 4 domains below:· Listening: Being proficient in listening means that you have developed a skill set that has enabled you to be able to give your full attention to the speaker, interprets to gain an understanding of what the speaker has said, and is able to engage the speaker throughout the conversation. As well as, to evaluate the spoken language in a variety of different situations.· Speaking: Being proficient in speaking means that you can engage in oral communication in different situations and with different audiences. You will be able to use the proper words in context, understanding the proper definitions, pronunciations, timing, and the use of proper syllables.· Reading: Being proficient in reading means that you can process and understand the written language. Being able to identify and evaluate text, symbols, and the written language with fluency.· Writing: To be proficient in writing means that the writer can engage in written and oral communication and transfer that onto paper using the correct meaning in their text. The writer can write to several different audiences and situations.Culture shock and other circumstances can affect the child’s ability to learn because the child is not feeling comfortable in their new environment. Being in shock hinders the child’s ability to learn because they are anxious, fearful, and insecure of their surroundings, those people around them, and the new culture they are in. If the child does not know how to communicate in their new environment, they become quiet and withdrawn. They do not understand how to ask for help or who to trust to get help from. All these issues will affect the child and their ability to learn. Therefore, it is imperative that we make the child feel as welcome as possible. Learning the child’s culture, some language, how to say their name, etc. will help the child to gain trust in you as their teacher and help to make the child feel more comfortable, thus enhancing their ability to learn.References:Deng, F., & Zou, Q. (2016). A study on whether adults’ second language acquisition is easy or not: From the perspective of children’s native language acquisition. (Links to an external site.) Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(4), 776-780. doi:10.17507/tpls.0604.15Himmel, J. (n.d.). Language objectives: The key to effective content area instruction for English learners.  (Links to an external site.)Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)Lieshoff, S. C., Aguilar, N., McShane, S., Burt, M., Peyton, J. K., Terrill, L., & Van Duzer, C. (2008, March). Practitioner toolkit: Working with adult English language learners. (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from, T. (2015). Language, learning, and culture: English language learning in today’s schools. Retrieved from· Chapter 1: The Faces of Diversity· Chapter 2: Language, Learning, and CultureFELECIA’S POST:K-12According to our textbook, “Language, Learning, and Culture” (Piper, 2015), ELL are students who are not born in United States and are between ages of 3-12. Other qualifications are they speak their Native Language (first) and English as their second or may not speak English at all. Also may have difficulties in writing, reading, speaking, and over understanding the English Language. However, there is a program in schools (elementary to high school) for students who may have difficulties with the following previous listed. This program is called ESL, English as a Second Language. ESL  is a program of techniques, methodology and special curriculum designed to teach ELL students English language skills, which may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually in English with little use of native language. (U.S department of Education, 2020)In order for students to succeed in school they must be competent in these four domains/ skills, reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Reading is skill that all children need and is taught from the early ages.  Children who are ELL have acquire reading skills simultaneously with listening and speaking  because they have attend public school in early years. As for ELL who have not, this may harder but also have to learn the three domains simultaneously, but some will benefit from having the foundation of literacy in another language.  (Piper, 2015)Writing means communication, more of social skill. ELLs, writing is easier and more purposeful if it is fully integrated into other language activities and with the broader curriculum. There are five stages of learning how to write, prewrite phrase/ brainstorming, draft phrase/ rough draft, revision phrase, editing phrase, and publishing. Also, writing needs to be link with other language sources because if not it would make it harder to learn. It is important to focus on oral language first, but for all learners it is sometimes necessary to concentrate on helping them develop comprehension and speaking ability before embarking on the journey to literacy. (Piper, 2015)Listening is foundational all language skills.  It plays role in reading as well. For ELL, listening may be hard because they are listening to different language that not their own. Listening comprehension entails a complex network of cognitive processes. These processes involve the listener calling upon both linguistic and nonlinguistic knowledge. Linguistic knowledge includes information about the relevant sounds in a language (the phonemes), how they go together to form words, word identification and meaning, sentence structure, and discourse structure. Nonlinguistic knowledge refers to the real-world information and experience. (Piper, 2015)Speaking  is the only skill that actually advances underlying proficiency in the language, it is nonetheless true that to be able to communicate in the language, learners have to be able to speak. With ELLs, if their pronunciation is good and they speak fluently with appropriate vocabulary, we usually judge them to be proficient. (Piper, 2015)Culture shock is the stress that people experience when they are immersed in a new and unfamiliar environment. For ELL, is learning something new, a different language and everything that comes with it. They are facing culture adaptions, between the school/ community and country. A ELL student may act out in class for number of reasons because one this something new and they do not understand what is going on. Two stress of learning new language and culture ways tends to be stressful especially if it is their first time here. Creating an environment in which all ELLs and, indeed, all children are comfortable requires sensitivity to these cultural elements. (Piper, 2015) To lessen the stress of an ELL, teachers should include their culture and other elements to assist with learning and adapting to new environment.Piper, T. (2015). Language, learning, and culture: English language learning in today’s schools. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.eduU.S department of Education – Reader Responsecomment on the posts of two classmatesDILLON’S POST:In this weeks lectures and reading assignments, I learned the basics of  writing many different essays; those being compare and contrast essays, analogy, division and classification essays, and definition essays. For this weeks essay i believe I will go with the compare and contrast essay. The division and classification essay, I didn’t fully understand. It seemed to resemble the compare and contrast essays alot.BRIDGET’S POST:In this week’s lesson I learned about several different types of  essays.  I learned about comparing, contrasting, analogy, definition, division and classification.  The compare/contrasting essay looks at a subject from two different points of view.  Comparing is finding the similarities and contrasting is finding the differences.  An analogy essay is telling about something unfamiliar by comparing it with something similar.  A definition essay means you put something in a general category and then add characteristics that distinguish it from others.  Lastly is the division/classification essay.  The division is a way of separating something something into parts and the classification is when we put something into groups that share characteristics.While reading this week’s lesson, I didn’t really understand how to write the defining essay.  The example was confusing.  When I was reading about the different types of essays this week, I thought about which one I wanted to use for my assignment.  At this point, I’m still confused about what will be the best fit for me, but I’m working on it.Discussion – It’s Classifiedcomment on the posts of two classmatesALYVIA’S POST:There are 2 types of thinkers in lifeThe way people think defines what type of person they are in life. There are two ways of thinking in life which include Positive thinking and Negative thinking. Many people are either classified as one or the other.1. Positive thinking. People who have a positive mind set tend to be the happiest. These types of people look for the good out of every situation. They typically believe everything happens for a reason and to not sweat the small things in life. Positive people tend to believe anything is possible. They create/conquer their own dream life goals. They are go getters and never settle for less. When walking in a room full of people, their positive energy feeds off on others.2. Negative thinking. People who have a negative mind set tend to have dark things going on internally or externally. These types of people will pull you down to their level to make sure you feel that dark energy they feel. They typically can drain other energies down. They always think of the worst things that can happen before taking time to see the good. These types of thinkers are always having the worst karma coming back to them from the universe. They always blame others for their problems. Nothing works out in their favor and the negative thinking continues.It is always good to be a positive thinker although we all have tendencies of negative thoughts. The type of attitude you portray to the universe is what you will get back. So with that being said, being a positive thinker in any situation rather than a negative thinker because it will lead you to a better and happier life.DILLON’S POST:The two types of different people Ive choose to write about are lazy people, and productive people. Although I feel that i may fall in both categories from time to time, there are many things that separate the two.1. Productive people have many things in common. I feel that productive people start off their day early and get the most out of it. another thing is acting and executing the things you need to do at that moment and not putting it off till later. I feel that productive people also plan out their days and make a list of the things that need to be accomplished day to day.2. Lazy individuals usually sleep in most days, put off important tasks that need attention, and don’t plan ahead for anything. Pretty much the complete opposite of productive.Discussion – It’s a Slang Thangcomment on the posts of two classmatesBRIDGET’S POST:As a mother of three, I often hear my children use slang.  While many are common enough that most people wouldn’t pay much attention, there are a few that are just so off the wall that I find myself shaking my head in wonder.  One phrase that my two teenage sons use all the time is “bet”.  This word refers to the phrase, “bet me I won’t (or can’t) do something”.  For example, one day I took my boys to the park and my middle child wanted to play basketball.  So, while he was playing, he looked and me and said, “Mom, you think I can make this shot from here?”.  When I replied that I didn’t know, his immediate response was “bet”.  I find both boys using this term all the time.  “Think I won’t win this game?  Bet!”.KYLEIGH’S POST:Throughout my 19 years of existence, slang has played a major impact on my everyday life. In my younger years, the word “fierce” was one I used to describe myself when I was really feeling it. As I matured, I referred to myself as a “savage”, this word held many meanings for me, but the most important one was when I used this word to describe my character. The word “savage” meant that my character made me a strong independent 14-year-old. However, now that I am grown and have seen the world, my favorite slang phrase is, “sauce up.” This phrase means to simply do. It is a word that implements actions. Although this phrase may not be common, it is used in my everyday life. Below this paragraph, I have listed a few examples that will hopefully bring more clarity.EXAMPLES:” I am about sauce up some eggs for breakfast.””Let’s sauce up a game night.””Sauce me the salt, please.””Saucing up some dinner tonight.””Sauce me some dance moves.”Although these are just a few examples, rest assured the word “sauce” is used in my everyday life.Discussion – Birds of a Feathercomment on the posts of two classmatesALYVIA’S POST:I can say my dad is my hero. I had a difficult childhood growing up. It was my dad, my mom, my older sister and myself living together. The difficulty did not come from a set of divorced parents it was simply because of the health issues my mom and sister struggled with. My mom is disabled and my sister has been struggling with a past traumatic brain injury since 08’. With that being said my dad had to step up and do way more than a normal dad would have to do in a family. When my sister had her accident, that is when my mom became very ill. Not only that, my dad’s own business hit the fan and he lost a lot of money. He had many hospital bills, personal bills, and family bills he had to pay for. He struggled because it was only him having to deal with that. Him having to not only take care of his sick family and myself, he had to continue to work hard to build his business back up. I can say my dad is a very ambitious person who works hard everyday to provide for my family no matter what the situation is. He has not only done his job as a father but has taken the mother role of my own mother in the things she could not do. I look up to him in that way. Growing up and watching everything my dad has done has inspired me to go get what I need to succeed in life. He showed me how life can be difficult and how to handle those situations in the right way. He is a very passionate person and I can relate to that. My dad is very smart and can accomplish a task without thinking hard about it. He works better underpressure rather than myself. Although I am smart, I suffer from Dyslexia which leads me to work a little bit harder and more organized than he does. Overall, he is now a very successful man. I strive to get where he is or even further than he is today!KYLEIGH’S POST:Over the years, I have considered several people as heroes in my life. In fact, a few examples would be my mom, Mitt Romeny, and even Ben Carson. However, when I think about the one I resonate with the most, Taylor Swift is the one that comes to mind. Although we share many similarities, we also differ in quite a few ways.Taylor Swift and I are similar in how we both were on the bleachers, and lost the boy we loved to the girl in a short skirt. However, we differed in the fact that she was in high school when this happened, and I was in middle school. Another way we are similar is our love for music. Taylor Swift and I both have a very diverse taste in music and change our tastes often. Despite our love for country music, we both share a similar enjoyment of pop culture. However, we differ in the fact that she gets paid millions for her music taste whereas I just get the simple pleasure of paying 9.99 a month to enjoy my tunes on apple music. We also share the same love for Grey’s Anatomy, but unlike mine, her favorite character is Meredith, and mine will always be Christina. Another similarity is our love for the Jonas Brothers, yet despite our mutual feelings, she dated one of them, and I just had the privilege of singing “burning love’ while watching them on a TV screen. As one can see Taylor Swift and I share many similarities, but it is our differences that make us human.Discussion – Apples to Aardvarkscomment on the posts of two classmatesALYVIA’S POST:Has anything annoyed you so much you wanted to scream? I can answer that myself. As humans we come across people and things that drive us crazy!! A good example would be my sisters. Some days I can not stand being around them. It could be the smallest things they say or do that aggravate me. The slow screeching noise from the chalkboard and the continuous aggravation I feel from my sisters, gives off a feeling or pain that hurts to even listen.BRIDGET’S POST:Children are like sponges.  They soak up everything that goes on or that is said around them.  They can also absorb your energy as well.  To be honest, they can zap your energy, but that’s a subject for a different day.  My daughter, who is almost eight, is very active and never stops going.  I hear my named called repeatedly, all time time.  I’ve never stopped to count, but it feels like she’s calling me half a million times a day on average.  Most of the time it is to tell me that just popped into her mind and it absolutely had to be told at that particular moment in time.  Waiting is not an option and patience is obviously not a virtue in eight-year-olds.  I assume that her haste is because she will have forgotten what she wanted to say thirty seconds from when she planned to say it.  Of course, telling me from afar is also not an option.  I have to be physically present in the same room and looking her in the eye for the news to count.  So, when I repeatedly hear “mom, Mom, MOM!”, I have to get up, go to where she is at that moment in time, and see what she needs.  Hence the sponge aspect.  Not only is she soaking up my conversations, my experiences and my attitude, she is also soaking up my energy by having to run to she what she wants every few seconds.

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