Assignment 2: Problems Children Face:  – This assignment is due at the end Week 6. This assignment is a continuation of assignment one (1).  In Assignment one (1) you choose from the six (6) problems children experience daily.  For this assignment, address the same issue from an applied perspective.


Assignment 2: Problems Children Face

Due:  Sunday at 11:55 p.m. at the end   of  Week 6 —-SEE WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT BELOW



In Assignment 2: In Assignment one (1) you choose from the six (6)   problems children experience daily.  For this assignment, address the same issue from an applied   perspective.

· What   is being done to address this problem?

· Is   there a consensus about how to improve this problem, or is there a great deal   of controversy?

· What   solutions have already been tried for this problem?

· How   successful have these solutions been?

· What   are the barriers to solving this problem?

· What   resources are available in YOUR community to deal with this problem?

· Future   approaches to the problem

· How   will this problem be addressed in the future?

· How   successful are these solutions likely to be?


Research Paper or Opinion Paper?

Research, NOT opinion


Number of published, peer-reviewed sources   required; must all be published within the last 8 years

· Course   readings may be used as one of the resources.

· Do not use any direct quotes from any sources

Five (5)


Length required (not including title page   and references

· Tables,   graphs, charts, lists, figures, etc. may be used, however do not count toward   the length requirement

1000-1500 words


Reference style required

American Psychological Association, 6th edition


Submission requirements

Microsoft Word document submitted as   attachment in Assignment Submission area.  Do not attach   to a Message or email, and do not paste into Submission text box.

Grading Rubric  







Student exhibits a defined and clear   understanding of the assignment.  The student provides a detailed   description of one (1) of the problems children experience daily.



Student demonstrates proficient command of   the subject matter in the assignment.  Assignment shows an impressive   level of depth of student’s ability to relate course content to practical   examples and applications.



Student provides well-supported ideas and   reflection with a variety of current and/or worldviews in the   assignment.  Student presents a genuine intellectual development of   ideas throughout assignment.



Evidence of research for materials/content   is listed using APA format.



Clarity of  writing style   Grammar/Punctuation/Spelling






Children and Substance Abuse

Sharman T.Williams

American Public University System

Professor David Konkle

June 23, 2018


Children and substance abuse

The factors contributing to the emergency and existence of substance abuse in children is influenced by many factors. The environment, behavioral and emotional factors put children at risk for substance abuse development which can be controlled through intervention and prevention programs by using research based, comprehensive studies, training of social resistance skills and many associated like learning. (Abuse, 2010). The direct and indirect alcohol effects and other related substance abuse in children leads to safety risks and adverse health factors for the family, child and the community. Substance abuse has mainly affected children hindering them both socially and mentally.

Use of illicit drugs is associated with the increased contracting risk of many diseases including HIV/AIDS. Drug and substance abuse is believed to be persistent and recurring problem among kids and it needs unremitting and persistent attention. This is a long-term hazard which its prevention methods should be institutionalized. The persistent use of illicit drugs later develops an addiction. (O’Connell, et al 2010). The addiction develops from a complex play between the individual and the environment. The drug and substance abuse in mitigation is determined by social interactions, personality, attitudes development and many related developmental factors.

The theories show that, the earlier use of drugs and its influence comes from the family. This is believed because, the basis of the behavioral development of a child is family relationship and the family perceptions towards alcohol and related abuse of drugs. Many children associated with substance abuse are believed to have come from families whose tradition is substance abuse. For instance, children who come from families involved in the abuse of drugs both parents are the alcohol lovers and other related substances, the risk of a child being a victim of substance abuse is very high. Similarly, smoke, alcohol drinking and use of drugs may be influenced by adolescent. This is poor self-image, poor performance in school, family dysfunction and parents over  controlling the teenagers.

According to O’Connell et al (2010), the risk factors of substance abuse in children are mostly found in earlier schooling years. These factors are associated with disorders like conduct disorders, hyperactivity disorders and defiant disorder which continues throughout the development of the child. The disorders can present initially with the mild behavioral problems and later develop to severe symptoms including stealing, substance abuse and aggression. Childhood hyperactivity impacts the higher risks of the development of adult alcoholism and abuse of drugs in children. According to research, the high activity level in infancy predicted the later abuse of substance in both sexes. Child aggression on the other hand, developed to place a child at risk for substance abuse during adolescent stages. The study generally came into an agreement that, use of drugs was associated with aggressive and violent behavior.

Peer influence also plays a great role in the development of drug and tobacco usage. The peer pressure is not only a factor related to use of drugs but drug abstinence. With alcohol exception, there is a direct link between substance abuse and peer pressure. Many of the children are found influenced with drugs through their peer groups and try to imitate what other peers are doing.

According to genetics perspectives, biological children of the parents who are alcohol dependent and those children who have been adopted by the alcohol dependent parents have a high risk of developing alcoholism. The research has found that, the difference in patterns of inheritance between the onset of alcoholism that is associated with a passive dependent personality and the transmission of alcoholism that is associated with criminal behavior. (Kumpfer, 2012). The transmission of the type 1 alcohol is affected from the father to son despite the environmental factors. Frequency drinking behavior like drinking and the amount consumed demonstrated a moderate of around heritability. The studies further show that, siblings and twins who are born to parents who are alcohol dependent confirmed that the existence of predisposition of the genes for alcohol abuse and other abuse of drugs.

Child abuse has implicated a significant risk factor for the substance abuse in the later date. Child abuse has been seen developing over decades and is the big challenge until nowadays. The drug sellers indicate falsely that it is not permutable to be sold to children under age, but people have been ignoring the fact and privately sell drugs to children making them more influenced by the abuse of drugs. Even though the government is against children substance abuse, the children are influenced by the number of factors apart from social and family backgrounds.

The higher percentage of children who are aged between 12-17 years who have seen people selling drugs and other related substances, are found in African American communities whereby the majority of children are white. African children are more exposed to people who are drunkard compared to children of the ethnic groups. Despite the exposure to drugs, the adolescents of African American have a lower report of drug use than the white peer children. Children who come from poor background and associated to hardships, the children are more likely to be influenced to cocaine and other substance abuses.

Protective factors are also behaviors between individuals, the family and the environment that advances ability of the child to resist the outcomes.

The assumptions which were found was that, children had inadequate knowledge about the effects of drug abuse and the efforts of prevention are not well known among the children. The prevention efforts were focused on the interpersonal and social influence models. This theory postulated that, youth experimented with alcohol and drugs abuse since they had not fully acquired their own inner values of resisting the external pressure. The prevention curriculum was developed for children from the preschool periods to the young adulthood. This is because, young children are likely to feel pressure to drink alcohol and use drugs. The children are also prone to temptations of using drugs during periods of transitions. This is the period of adolescent which represents a high risk of abusing drugs.

Kumpfer, (2012). Argues that, the trainings of life skills were proved to be effective method of lowering alcohol, tobacco and use of other related substance abuse. The life skills training of the user of drug abuse on the drugs resistance skill was a type of training whereby self-improvement framework and social interpersonal skills development are taught. This skill helps the child to develop preventive measures and skills of handling substance abuse situations in their daily lives.

The efficacy of the preunit children prevention secular are highly undocumented in the randomized controlled study outcomes. The curriculum targeting the preschool children has been not yet designed with the favor of the designed curriculum of adolescents. This makes it very difficult for children to understand the effects of substance abuse and take caution in their earlier stages.


Abuse, S. (2010). Mental Health Services. Administration Office of Applied Studies. Preliminary results from the

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (US). Women, & Children’s Branch. (2011). Practical approaches in the treatment of women who abuse alcohol and other drugs . US Government Printing Office

Kumpfer, K. L. (2012). Special populations: Etiology and prevention of vulnerability to chemical dependency in children of substance abusers

O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (2010). Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth, and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions

Rohsenow, D. J., Corbett, R., & Devine, D. (2012). Molested as children: A hidden contribution to substance abuse?. Journal of substance abuse treatment , 5 (1), 13-18

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